Black Education in the South by James Anderson

finish reading assignment

Eastern Washington University

Black Education in the South by James Anderson

1. Who is James Anderson?

The author of the article “The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935”

2. Samuel Chapman Armstrong, an ex-slave, helped create the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute?

True or False

3. The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute consisted of:

a. only White students

b. a mixture of Black and White students as an experiment toward integration

c. only Black students

4. The word pedagogy is mentioned in your reading assignment on page 33 (the first page of the reading). What does pedagogy mean?

The pedagogy means a way to conduct teaching and education. In this page, Armstrong developed a pedagogy that designed to avoid the confrontation and to maintain within the south a social consensus that did not challenge traditional inequalities of wealth and power.

5. What star pupil and graduate from the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in 1881?

Booker T. Washington

6. The main purpose of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute’s curriculum was to train Blacks in industrial and vocational education for employment?

a. True

b. False

7. Samuel Armstrong used his newspaper, Southern Workman, to promote what ideas about Reconstruction?

Southern Workman presented Armstrong’s views on the freedmen’s place in the developing New South and sided with conservative political groups who wanted to disfranchise the freedmen and created a legal and customary racial hierarchy about Black Reconstruction

8. As his ideas about Black education were challenged, Samuel Armstrong argued that Whites were much more superior in what characteristic?

A. Morality

B. Independence

C. Counting

D. Language Development

E. Memory

9. Name at least one of the reasons why Samuel Armstrong incorporated daily activities of manual labor into his curriculum?

10. How were Black teachers graduating from Armstrong’s school being trained to help the Black masses view Reconstruction?

11. How did Armstrong view college- or highly educated Blacks?

12. Hampton’s industrial teacher training program consisted of which three main areas:

a. the elementary academic program, the manual labor system, and a strict social discipline routine

b. the elementary academic program, the secondary academic program, high school and college academic program

c. the elementary academic program, the secondary academic program, and Christian missionary training program

13. Hampton’s academic curriculum consisted of elementary mathematics, history, literature, moral science, reading and elocution. Why were the classical studies excluded from the curriculum at Hampton?

14. Armstrong considered courses in political economy, civil government, and practical morality to be the most important for socializing the students into certain ideas about Reconstruction. What unique decision was made concerning teachers to carry out this teaching?

15. Why do you think Armstrong used his newspaper, Southern Workman, as the main text for the political economy course?

16. Students were taught in classes that Blacks were at a political, economic, and social disadvantage in the US. What reason was given for these disadvantages?

17. Some students were unable to pass the literacy test required for entrance into the Hampton school. What was the main criterion for the “special class” created for those students seeking entrance into Hampton?

18. What requirements of Hampton’s night school added in 1879 were similar to slave labor?

19. Given the data from the reading, what is meant by the “Hampton Idea”?

20. Is Armstrong a hero for Blacks? Yes or no (use info from the reading to explain your answer)

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