Give five examples of English words (NOT from Chapter 7, web lecture 3.3 or any of the optional reading material) whose meanings have shifted from the original roots. Explain which process (metaphor or metonymy) and which result (narrowing, widening, amelioration, perjoration) apply. Try to have at least one example of each process (metaphor or metonymy). If necessary, you may use words which are not of Greek or Latin origin for some (not all) of your answers (however, you must still identify what their origin is, such as Old English, etc.; identify the origin to the best of your ability, anything is better than “I don’t know”).
Use the example format below:
English: escalator Source: fr. Latin scala, “ladder” Metaphor or metonymy: Metaphor Result: Widening (from object “allowing you to move up and down” to “mechanism that moves you up and down”)
English: brass (slang for person in authority, esp. military officers) Source: origin unknown (according to Oxford English Dictionary) Metaphor or metonymy: Metonymy Result: Widening (from “brass rank insignia worn by military officers”)