1. A Literature Review (LR)
-It is a critical description of the literature relevant to a particular research.
-A Literature Review (LR) should never be just a list of previous work contain the works that you consulted in order to develop your research provide justification/background for the research undertaken: – The LR guides the reader to understanding the contribution of the work by pointing out the shortcomings/gaps of the state of the science.
-Journal articles:Provide technical up-to-date information (last 2 years) about a research topic.
– Resources should be from nature reviews in microbiologyhttp://www.nature.com/nrmicro/index.html , If you cannot open any articles, text me to send it to you.
-As well as highlighted references that are accompanied by an explanation as to why these references are essential reading.
-In-depth literature review, critical and comprehensive assessment of the background information and current understanding related to the topic, missing knowledge gaps etc.
– You should write the outline in:
• Grouped similar information
• Shows the relations between different works
• It is organized around ideas and not researchers
-The function of the literature Review:
SUMMARIZE the literature
• EVALUATE the literature
• SHOW RELATIONSHIPS between different studies (e.g., differences in methodology) • And in a research proposal – SHOW HOW PUBLISHED WORK RELATES to your thought.
You should be aware of writing a literature review Is that
* compare and contrast different authors’ views on an issue
• group authors who draw similar conclusions
• criticise aspects of methodology
• note areas in which authors are in disagreement
• highlight exemplary studies
• highlight gaps in research
• show how your study relates to previous studies
• show how your study relates to the literature in general
• conclude by summarising what the literature says
The purposes of the review are:
• to define and limit the problem you are working on
• to place your study in an historical perspective
• to avoid unnecessary duplication
• to evaluate promising research methods
• to relate your findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research
2.Cover the basic of Outlines
Just like most academic papers, literature reviews also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or background information section; the body of the review containing the discussion of sources; and, finally, a conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper.
Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern.
Body: Contains your discussion of sources and is organized either chronologically, thematically, or methodologically (see below for more information on each).
Conclusions/Recommendations: Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?
3. You should answer these Qs :
1. What do we already know in the immediate area concerned?
2. What are the characteristics of the key concepts or the main factors or variables?
3. What are therelationships between these key concepts, factors or variables?
4. What are the complementary existing theories/approaches?
5.Where are the inconsistencies or other shortcomings in our knowledge, which these works have not solved?
6. Why these references are essential reading.
7. What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited?
8. Why study (further) the research problem?
9. What contribution can the present study be expected to make?
10. What research designs or methods seem unsatisfactory?
4.An example of short outline of literature review:
5. Bacteria or Viral pathogens, which is more of a concern?
Outline of literature Review:
1.list of authors:
3.Material and methods Brief
4.Main part of the review articles Brief
3. Theories and ResultsBrief
4.Discussion Main point – brief
7.References Five articles related with the topic from nature review.